Immunological characterization of monoclonal antibodies used in rapid influenza diagnostic test for detection of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection.

Since 2009 pandemic, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) have been developed for specific diagnosis of pandemic virus infection. Most mAbs poorly marked because of the urgency during a pandemic. Further characterization of mAbs to RIDTs would be beneficial to understand the immunological properties of the pandemic virus and take advantage of mAbs for other research purposes.

In this study, it was confirmed that the two mAbs (I38 and D383) in RIDT diagnostics capable of detecting viruses H1N1pdm09 H1N1pdm09 through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence test (IFA). Also, two mAbs exhibited reactivity hemagglutinins (HA) from both H1N1pdm09 and the 1918 H1N1 virus; therefore, RIDT using mAbs can detect HA of H1N1pdm09 and also the 1918 H1N1 like strains.

In an extension of our previous study, the epitope (Sa sites antigenic and interface areas of F ‘and subdomain esterase vestigial on the domain HA1 of the HA of H1N1pdm09) recognized by mAbs amplified in depth by IFA with escape-mutant mAbs and mapping epitopes the crystal structure of the human H1N1 virus HA. Collectively, these results suggest that the mAbs to RIDT may be suitable for use in studying the properties of immunology of viral H1N1pdm09 and that Sa sites antigenic and interfacial area between F ‘and esterase vestigial subdomains on influenza virus HA recognized by mAbs that immunologically conserved regions between H1N1pdm09 and 1918 H1N1.


Determination of serum autoantibodies against antigens of complex liver using enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot allows for increased frequency identification overlap syndrome during autoimmune liver disorders and early diagnostics, which has clinics, diagnostic and prognostic great importance. The level of autoantibodies overlap combining with biochemical indices and with disease activity and the intensity of the autoimmune process during overlap syndrome of primary biliary cirrhosis / autoimmune hepatitis (PBC / AIH).

 Immunological characterization of monoclonal antibodies used in rapid influenza diagnostic test for detection of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection.
Immunological characterization of monoclonal antibodies used in rapid influenza diagnostic test for detection of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection.

when immunological and molecular tools for leptospirosis: diagnostics, vaccine design, and biomarkers to predict the severity.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease spirochaetal endemic in many tropical countries. Basic research on leptospirosis is not as strong as other tropical infections such as malaria. However, it is a deadly infection that can affect many vital organs in severe forms, causing multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and death. There are many gaps in knowledge about the pathophysiology of leptospirosis and host immune role in causing symptoms. This blocking an important step in combating the disease, such as developing potential vaccines.

Another major problem with leptospirosis is the lack of easy to carry, accurate diagnostic tests. Many doctors in resource-limited settings resorts for clinical assessment in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. This is unfortunate, because many other diseases such as dengue fever, hantavirus, rickettsial infection, and even severe bacterial sepsis, leptospirosis can emulate. Another interesting issue is the prediction of disease severity at the beginning of the disease.

Amphiphysin ELISA

LF-EK0189 1×96T
EUR 723.6

SAM ELISA

IK00201 96 tests
EUR 720
Description: S-adenosylmethionine ELISA kit

SAH ELISA

IK00301 96 tests
EUR 1188
Description: S-adenosylhomocysteine ELISA kit

CALU ELISA Kit| Mouse Calumenin ELISA Kit

EF013485 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CAM ELISA Kit| Mouse Calmodulin ELISA Kit

EF013486 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CaN ELISA Kit| Mouse Calcineurin ELISA Kit

EF013487 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CAST ELISA Kit| Mouse Calpastatin ELISA Kit

EF013494 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CHE ELISA Kit| Mouse Chemerin ELISA Kit

EF013514 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CORT ELISA Kit| Mouse Corticosterone ELISA Kit

EF013533 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Calretinin ELISA Kit| Mouse Calretinin ELISA Kit

EF013536 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Creatinine ELISA Kit| Mouse Creatinine ELISA Kit

EF013537 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CRT ELISA Kit| Mouse Calreticulin ELISA Kit

EF013539 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CT ELISA Kit| Mouse Calcitonin ELISA Kit

EF013540 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Des ELISA Kit| Mouse Desmin ELISA Kit

EF013564 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

DHEA ELISA Kit| Mouse Dehydroepiandrosterone ELISA Kit

EF013565 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

DMD ELISA Kit| Mouse Dystrophin ELISA Kit

EF013570 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

DPD ELISA Kit| Mouse Deoxypyridinoline ELISA Kit

EF013573 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

ELN ELISA Kit| Mouse Elastin ELISA Kit

EF013582 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

FE ELISA Kit| Mouse Ferritin ELISA Kit

EF013594 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

FMOD ELISA Kit| Mouse Fibromodulin ELISA Kit

EF013602 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

GS ELISA Kit| Mouse Gelsolin ELISA Kit

EF013657 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

HAase ELISA Kit| Mouse Hyaluronidase ELISA Kit

EF013665 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

HB ELISA Kit| Mouse Hemoglobin ELISA Kit

EF013667 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

HCY ELISA Kit| Mouse Homocysteine ELISA Kit

EF013670 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Hepc ELISA Kit| Mouse Hepcidin ELISA Kit

EF013675 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

HJV ELISA Kit| Mouse Hemojuvelin ELISA Kit

EF013678 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

HK ELISA Kit| Mouse Hexokinase ELISA Kit

EF013679 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

HP ELISA Kit| Mouse Haptoglobin ELISA Kit

EF013689 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

LZM ELISA Kit| Mouse Lysozyme ELISA Kit

EF013748 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

MAU ELISA Kit| Mouse Microalbuminuria ELISA Kit

EF013752 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

MHB ELISA Kit| Mouse Methemoglobin ELISA Kit

EF013756 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

MT ELISA Kit| Mouse Melatonin ELISA Kit

EF013768 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

MTL ELISA Kit| Mouse Motilin ELISA Kit

EF013769 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

MYO ELISA Kit| Mouse Myoglobin ELISA Kit

EF013773 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

NGB ELISA Kit| Mouse Neuroglobin ELISA Kit

EF013783 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Pg ELISA Kit| Mouse Progesterone ELISA Kit

EF013825 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

PHB ELISA Kit| Mouse Prohibitin ELISA Kit

EF013829 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

PI ELISA Kit| Mouse Proinsulin ELISA Kit

EF013830 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

PP ELISA Kit| Mouse Pepsin ELISA Kit

EF013842 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

PS ELISA Kit| Mouse Phosphatidylserine ELISA Kit

EF013849 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

PTD ELISA Kit| Mouse Pentosidine ELISA Kit

EF013851 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

PTN ELISA Kit| Mouse Pleiotrophin ELISA Kit

EF013856 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

REN ELISA Kit| Mouse Renin ELISA Kit

EF013865 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

SCT ELISA Kit| Mouse Secretin ELISA Kit

EF013878 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

SYP ELISA Kit| Mouse Synaptophysin ELISA Kit

EF013911 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

TG ELISA Kit| Mouse Thyroglobulin ELISA Kit

EF013933 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

TLN ELISA Kit| Mouse Talin ELISA Kit

EF013937 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

TM ELISA Kit| Mouse Thrombomodulin ELISA Kit

EF013939 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

TRF ELISA Kit| Mouse Transferrin ELISA Kit

EF013948 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

TRY ELISA Kit| Mouse Trypsin ELISA Kit

EF013951 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

TTR ELISA Kit| Mouse Transthyretin ELISA Kit

EF013954 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ub ELISA Kit| Mouse Ubiquitin ELISA Kit

EF013956 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

VF ELISA Kit| Mouse Visfatin ELISA Kit

EF013963 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

CCK ELISA Kit| Mouse Cholecystokinin ELISA Kit

EF013984 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

His ELISA Kit| Mouse Histamine ELISA Kit

EF013995 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

AMPKa ELISA Kit| Mouse pThr172 ELISA Kit

EF013997 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

PCT ELISA Kit| Mouse Procalcitonin ELISA Kit

EF014005 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

TE ELISA Kit| Mouse Telomerase ELISA Kit

EF014029 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

FUR ELISA Kit| Mouse Furin ELISA Kit

EF014041 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Calprotectin ELISA Kit| Mouse Calprotectin ELISA Kit

EF014057 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Hyp ELISA Kit| Mouse Hydroxyproline ELISA Kit

EF014063 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

FLG ELISA Kit| Mouse Filaggrin ELISA Kit

EF014071 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ahi1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Jouberin ELISA Kit

EF014105 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Aaas ELISA Kit| Mouse Aladin ELISA Kit

EF014113 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Adig ELISA Kit| Mouse Adipogenin ELISA Kit

EF014153 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Afm ELISA Kit| Mouse Afamin ELISA Kit

EF014169 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ambn ELISA Kit| Mouse Ameloblastin ELISA Kit

EF014190 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Atrn ELISA Kit| Mouse Attractin ELISA Kit

EF014265 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Bsnd ELISA Kit| Mouse Barttin ELISA Kit

EF014276 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Bfsp1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Filensin ELISA Kit

EF014298 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Bfsp2 ELISA Kit| Mouse Phakinin ELISA Kit

EF014299 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Bscl2 ELISA Kit| Mouse Seipin ELISA Kit

EF014300 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Bgn ELISA Kit| Mouse Biglycan ELISA Kit

EF014309 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Btd ELISA Kit| Mouse Biotinidase ELISA Kit

EF014312 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Bche ELISA Kit| Mouse Cholinesterase ELISA Kit

EF014352 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ccin ELISA Kit| Mouse Calicin ELISA Kit

EF014375 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Clgn ELISA Kit| Mouse Calmegin ELISA Kit

EF014376 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Cdca8 ELISA Kit| Mouse Borealin ELISA Kit

EF014455 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Cntln ELISA Kit| Mouse Centlein ELISA Kit

EF014458 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Cer1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Cerberus ELISA Kit

EF014463 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Chad ELISA Kit| Mouse Chondroadherin ELISA Kit

EF014487 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Chodl ELISA Kit| Mouse Chondrolectin ELISA Kit

EF014490 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Clspn ELISA Kit| Mouse Claspin ELISA Kit

EF014504 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ccdc88a ELISA Kit| Mouse Girdin ELISA Kit

EF014530 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Cdsn ELISA Kit| Mouse Corneodesmosin ELISA Kit

EF014547 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Cort ELISA Kit| Mouse Cortistatin ELISA Kit

EF014548 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Cubn ELISA Kit| Mouse Cubilin ELISA Kit

EF014569 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ctns ELISA Kit| Mouse Cystinosin ELISA Kit

EF014598 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Cygb ELISA Kit| Mouse Cytoglobin ELISA Kit

EF014614 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dfnb31 ELISA Kit| Mouse Whirlin ELISA Kit

EF014640 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dmkn ELISA Kit| Mouse Dermokine ELISA Kit

EF014677 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dstn ELISA Kit| Mouse Destrin ELISA Kit

EF014680 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dpys ELISA Kit| Mouse Dihydropyrimidinase ELISA Kit

EF014695 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dixdc1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Dixin ELISA Kit

EF014715 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dbn1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Drebrin ELISA Kit

EF014734 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dym ELISA Kit| Mouse Dymeclin ELISA Kit

EF014745 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dysf ELISA Kit| Mouse Dysferlin ELISA Kit

EF014753 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dst ELISA Kit| Mouse Dystonin ELISA Kit

EF014755 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dtnbp1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Dysbindin ELISA Kit

EF014756 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Dag1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Dystroglycan ELISA Kit

EF014757 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Emb ELISA Kit| Mouse Embigin ELISA Kit

EF014774 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Emd ELISA Kit| Mouse Emerin ELISA Kit

EF014776 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Enam ELISA Kit| Mouse Enamelin ELISA Kit

EF014778 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Emcn ELISA Kit| Mouse Endomucin ELISA Kit

EF014779 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Enho ELISA Kit| Mouse Adropin ELISA Kit

EF014792 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Evpl ELISA Kit| Mouse Envoplakin ELISA Kit

EF014798 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Eppin ELISA Kit| Mouse Eppin ELISA Kit

EF014811 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ermn ELISA Kit| Mouse Ermin ELISA Kit

EF014824 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Espn ELISA Kit| Mouse Espin ELISA Kit

EF014828 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Espl1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Separin ELISA Kit

EF014864 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Fign ELISA Kit| Mouse Fidgetin ELISA Kit

EF014932 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Flcn ELISA Kit| Mouse Folliculin ELISA Kit

EF014951 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Fktn ELISA Kit| Mouse Fukutin ELISA Kit

EF014984 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Fah ELISA Kit| Mouse Fumarylacetoacetase ELISA Kit

EF014986 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Galk1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Galactokinase ELISA Kit

EF015008 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Galc ELISA Kit| Mouse Galactocerebrosidase ELISA Kit

EF015012 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Gpbp1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Vasculin ELISA Kit

EF015023 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Gmnn ELISA Kit| Mouse Geminin ELISA Kit

EF015026 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Gan ELISA Kit| Mouse Gigaxonin ELISA Kit

EF015031 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Glmn ELISA Kit| Mouse Glomulin ELISA Kit

EF015037 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Gca ELISA Kit| Mouse Grancalcin ELISA Kit

EF015092 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Hemgn ELISA Kit| Mouse Hemogen ELISA Kit

EF015158 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Hdlbp ELISA Kit| Mouse Vigilin ELISA Kit

EF015180 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Invs ELISA Kit| Mouse Inversin ELISA Kit

EF015284 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Kalrn ELISA Kit| Mouse Kalirin ELISA Kit

EF015312 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Khk ELISA Kit| Mouse Ketohexokinase ELISA Kit

EF015321 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Kynu ELISA Kit| Mouse Kynureninase ELISA Kit

EF015331 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Lxn ELISA Kit| Mouse Latexin ELISA Kit

EF015348 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Layn ELISA Kit| Mouse Layilin ELISA Kit

EF015349 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Lca5 ELISA Kit| Mouse Lebercilin ELISA Kit

EF015350 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Lpxn ELISA Kit| Mouse Leupaxin ELISA Kit

EF015377 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Lor ELISA Kit| Mouse Loricrin ELISA Kit

EF015401 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Mefv ELISA Kit| Mouse Pyrin ELISA Kit

EF015470 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Mreg ELISA Kit| Mouse Melanoregulin ELISA Kit

EF015477 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Tesmin ELISA Kit| Mouse Tesmin ELISA Kit

EF015495 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Metrn ELISA Kit| Mouse Meteorin ELISA Kit

EF015499 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Mcph1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Microcephalin ELISA Kit

EF015519 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Men1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Menin ELISA Kit

EF015575 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Msc ELISA Kit| Mouse Musculin ELISA Kit

EF015581 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Pde4dip ELISA Kit| Mouse Myomegalin ELISA Kit

EF015595 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Mynn ELISA Kit| Mouse Myoneurin ELISA Kit

EF015596 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Mypn ELISA Kit| Mouse Myopalladin ELISA Kit

EF015597 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Myot ELISA Kit| Mouse Myotilin ELISA Kit

EF015601 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Mtpn ELISA Kit| Mouse Myotrophin ELISA Kit

EF015602 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Mtm1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Myotubularin ELISA Kit

EF015603 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nenf ELISA Kit| Mouse Neudesin ELISA Kit

EF015642 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ngrn ELISA Kit| Mouse Neugrin ELISA Kit

EF015643 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nbea ELISA Kit| Mouse Neurobeachin ELISA Kit

EF015648 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ncdn ELISA Kit| Mouse Neurochondrin ELISA Kit

EF015651 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nfasc ELISA Kit| Mouse Neurofascin ELISA Kit

EF015653 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nf1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Neurofibromin ELISA Kit

EF015654 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nf2 ELISA Kit| Mouse Merlin ELISA Kit

EF015655 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nrgn ELISA Kit| Mouse Neurogranin ELISA Kit

EF015658 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ngdn ELISA Kit| Mouse Neuroguidin ELISA Kit

EF015659 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nptn ELISA Kit| Mouse Neuroplastin ELISA Kit

EF015676 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ntm ELISA Kit| Mouse Neurotrimin ELISA Kit

EF015677 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nrtn ELISA Kit| Mouse Neurturin ELISA Kit

EF015678 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nbn ELISA Kit| Mouse Nibrin ELISA Kit

EF015689 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ncln ELISA Kit| Mouse Nicalin ELISA Kit

EF015690 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ncstn ELISA Kit| Mouse Nicastrin ELISA Kit

EF015691 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nisch ELISA Kit| Mouse Nischarin ELISA Kit

EF015697 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nostrin ELISA Kit| Mouse Nostrin ELISA Kit

EF015700 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ndp ELISA Kit| Mouse Norrin ELISA Kit

EF015709 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Nxn ELISA Kit| Mouse Nucleoredoxin ELISA Kit

EF015732 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ocln ELISA Kit| Mouse Occludin ELISA Kit

EF015742 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Opalin ELISA Kit| Mouse Opalin ELISA Kit

EF015746 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ocm ELISA Kit| Mouse Oncomodulin ELISA Kit

EF015749 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Optn ELISA Kit| Mouse Optineurin ELISA Kit

EF015752 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Ogn ELISA Kit| Mouse Mimecan ELISA Kit

EF015766 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Omd ELISA Kit| Mouse Osteomodulin ELISA Kit

EF015767 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Palld ELISA Kit| Mouse Palladin ELISA Kit

EF015782 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Pef1 ELISA Kit| Mouse Peflin ELISA Kit

EF015817 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Prx ELISA Kit| Mouse Periaxin ELISA Kit

EF015829 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Prph ELISA Kit| Mouse Peripherin ELISA Kit

EF015831 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Most patients recover from leptospirosis with only a mild febrile illness, while others have severe disease with multi-organ failure. The clinical picture is a poor predictor of the potential severity of the infection, and because the search is for a potential biomarker that may serve as an early warning for severe disease. This review concentrates on three important aspects of these neglected tropical diseases: diagnostics, vaccine development, and potential biomarkers to predict the severity of the disease.